The feeling of satiety (fullness) does not come only from a “full” stomach, in fact it is only a minor contributor. Hunger, fullness and the desire to start consuming and stop consuming is a complicated process controlled by a delicate dance of hormones, neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) and various other physique chemistry, the majority of which are controlled by the primary brain in the skull and the secondary brain in the gut … yes we do have actually a brain in the gut.
Reason one – insulin resistance
If you are hungry (desire to keep eating) after eating, it could be time to look at the quality and composition of meals being consumed. According to one researcher (Lustig, 2012) humans release double the insulin as we did 30 years ago. The research appears to point to a poor diet that can easily include excessive amounts of calorie dense nutrient deficient foods. This can easily lead to excess production of the hormone insulin. According to the research, insulin, which is a fat storage hormone, builds up in the blood. The physique can easily reacts to this hyperinsulemia by creating insulin resistance. This insulin resistance reduces the function of insulin to get hold of required fuel in to the cells for energy … the cells hunger for energy.
This excess insulin then performs it’s various other primary function of fat storage. The accumulation of physique fat can easily additionally disrupt the hormone leptin. Leptin, along along with insulin, controls energy balance by signaling the brain to stop eating. Disrupt leptin and the brain does not receive the message … the desire to consume continues.
Consuming a nutritional dense diet, reasonable in concentrated carbohydrates along with calories equivalent to meet our needs is one strategy to combat insulin resistance. It is additionally important to have actually an annual physical to rule out any disease or deficiencies that already may exist.
Reason two – brain’s reward system
There are 2 systems in the brain that control hunger. The initial is the Homeostatic System and it is vital to our survival. Our brain is the command focus for regulating our appetite which includes a complex dance between hormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and macronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Our bodies are designed to maintain a balance between our needs for energy derived from meals and our intake of the food. Without this drive for “homeostasis” we wouldn’t have actually survived all these eons. However, in the past 30 years something has actually interrupted this homeostasis resulting in the obesity epidemic.
The second system at job is called the Hedonic System or pleasure-reward system. Our brains are hardwired to respond and seek rewards that are essential for survival through the hedonic system. This system drives the homeostatic system to encourage us to consume and to store sufficient calories to protect us from the potential of future starvation or famine, based on how agreeable the meals and liquid is to the “palate”. This palatability varies … it is lower after consumption of meals and liquid and higher when deprived. The pleasure-reward system is activated when we consume meals that is enjoyable thus making us more most likely to seek out that meals again. The more pleasurable, the more addictive the meals becomes, the more we seek it and we learn the more we consume the much better is appears to make us feel, physically and often mentally. This can easily develop a hedonic hunger, that is driven by a need for pleasure-reward that is independent of basic homeostatic needs.
The Hedonic System places a higher value … higher reward and satisfaction … on some meals more than others, especially those containing high amounts of fat, sugar, salt and flavorings. Consuming 2 slices of pizza and a sweetened beverage, or a burger and high fat fries along with sweet and salty condiments and a sweetened beverage, could drive you to want more of the same or something of equal value on the reward and satisfaction scale. A salad on the various other hand may not evoke such a strong reward, yet one that rewards the brain sufficiently enough to satisfy the appetite without driving you to seek more. This takes us to reason three, highly palatable food.
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Reason three – highly palatabile food
Food that is palatable prompts us … drives us … to seek out and consume more, even when we’re not physically hungry. So exactly what makes meals palatable? exactly what makes meals so palatable that they can easily make us overeat to the point of feeling “Thanksgiving stuffed” at any time of the year?
In a previous Examiner article the 7 factors noted that influence palatability included:
1. Processed foods. No surprise here. The mixture of meals refined by industrial processes, such as sugar, flour, salt and certain fats are typically mixed along with flavor enhancers and chemical additives. These food-like products are ingested in a form that triggers an excessive release of neurotransmitters, similar to recreational drugs, which can easily promote compulsive intake and loss of control.
2. High sugar / high glycemic load carbohydrates. Sugar, a type of a carbohydrate known as a disaccharide, is classified as addictive based on animal models. When sugar is found in fruits and vegetables it’s found in smaller sized concentrations and coexists along with various other natural substances like fiber, vitamins and trace minerals that have actually lots of beneficial benefits.
Highly refined carbohydrates have actually a rapid absorption rate causing a spike in the blood glucose level, followed by a surge of neurotransmitters. The physique responds to this increase in blood glucose by a sudden drop resulting in increased hunger.
Human studies have actually shown that a higher glycemic load shakes triggered the Hedonic System resulting in increased hunger resulting in eating way too much in spite of adequate caloric intake. Take House message: avoiding highly processed/refined/high glycemic load carbohydrates can easily tips individuals steer clear of overeating.
3. High fat. Several individuals crave fatty foods, like melted cheese, full fat ice cream, and cream of broccoli soup. consuming meals high in fat have actually not shown to trigger the same circuitry followed by drug abusers yet animal studies have actually shown that one more mechanism could be involved in cravings for high fat foods. This could be why you can’t merely consume 12 almonds!
4. Salt. Some researchers believe that salty meals could be an addictive substance that stimulates the reward-pleasure system. Research to date has actually been on animal models yet shows once again, that salty meals encourages more salt binging. This could be why “you can’t merely consume one” of your favorite chips. The meals industry uses salt as the answer to making cheap, unpalatable meals edible at a fairly reasonable cost.
5. The combination of sugar and fat. Animal models show that rats will certainly job hardest for a meals that combines sugar and fat. The combination of these two meals components promoted weight gain in rats vs. a diet only high in sugar or a diet only high in fat. Fast meals scientist have actually taken this combination to develop “food” along with super addictive palatability. Add to this clever and constant marketing; enticing food-consuming restaurant environments, and a stressful day, enough for the primitive human brain to be easily hijacked to overeat.
6. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS). The controversy over HFCS still continues yet some facts cannot be overlooked. Fructose follows a different pathway than glucose. Dividing fructose results in an increase in hunger and creates a strong desire for food. Interesting adverse note; the special properties of fructose resemble that of alcohol. merely like alcohol, when fructose is taken in large quantities, it can easily result in neurobiological changes (the brain begins to adjustment the method it responds and even looks!)
7. meals availability, it’s visual appeal, incentives (i.e. Value Meal); social situations revolving around eating, and advertising and marketing are various other factors that influence the potential for meals addictive-like behaviors.
There could be Several reasons for excessive hunger including medical conditions like, yet not limited to, reactive hypoglycemia, per-diabetes and diabetes. If you are experiencing excessive hunger see your medical care provider for a strategy that fulfills your personal circumstances.
This article is not intended to replace a one-on-one partnership along with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical/nutritional/fitness advice. article presented is subject to adjustment as additional discoveries are made or additional research is published. Links to various sites are provided for your convenience only and we are not responsible or liable for the content, accuracy of article provided or privacy practices of linked sites or for products or services described on these sites.
Sources: http://www.examiner.com/article/scottsdale-food-addiction-obesity-and-diabetes, National Institute of Drug Abuse, The Free Dictionary, wikipedia.org/wiki, Institute of National Resources, Merck Manuals, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/, http://www.webmd.com/, http://www.examiner.com/article/rewiring-your-brain-to-stop-food-addiction-and-obesity,